HBOT For Periodontal Disease

Periodontal Disease is a gum disease that includes both Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and Periodontitis (inflammation of the tissue around the teeth, often causing shrinkage of the gums and loosening of the teeth). It is an infection of the gums and other supporting tissues of the teeth including the tooth sockets. Periodontal disease causes inflammation of the gums and other supporting tissues of the teeth. It begins with deposits of plaque on the teeth. Plaque is made up of bacteria, mucus and food debris and deposits on the teeth over the long term can become tarter deposits which attach to the lower portion of the exposed tooth. The deposits of tartar (a hard calcified deposit that forms on the teeth and contributes to their decay) are a major cause of tooth decay and will eventually irritate and inflame the gums. When gums become infected they may be swollen, bleeding and tender to the touch. If Gingivitis progresses to Periodontitis loss of bone surrounding the teeth can occur eventually leading to tooth loss. Treatment will include a thorough cleaning to remove deposits from teeth and reduce inflammation of the gums. Proper oral hygiene is the best way to avoid a recurrence of Periodontal Disease. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy has been beneficial as part of the treatment of Periodontal Disease. Case studies have shown a reduction in healing time and gum swelling. In some cases, HBOT may be able to prevent tooth loss.

Benefits of HBOT :

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2) has been successfully used in several medical fields. The therapeutic effect is related to elevated partial oxygen pressure in the tissues. The pressure itself enhances oxygen solubility in the tissue fluids. HBO 2 has shown to affect angiogenesis, bone metabolism and bone turnover. Studies have been conducted to analyse the effects of HBO 2 therapy on periodontal disease. Cultivation of plaque microorganisms from sites of chronic periodontitis reveals high percentages of anaerobic (90%) bacterial species. HBO 2 increases local oxygen distribution, especially at the base of the periodontal pocket, which inhibits the growth of anaerobic bacteria and allows the ischemic tissues to receive an adequate intake of oxygen sufficient for a rapid recovery of cell metabolism. HBO 2 increases generation of oxygen free radicals, which oxidize proteins and membrane lipids, damage deoxyribonucleic acid and inhibit bacterial metabolic functions. It also facilitates the oxygen-dependent peroxidase system by which leukocytes kill bacteria. HBO 2 also improves the oxygen-dependent transport of certain antibiotics across bacterial cell walls. In this way HBOT results in inhibition of bacterial growth. It is increasingly being accepted as a beneficial adjunct to diverse clinical conditions. Microbiological data indicate that the combination of HBO 2 and scaling and root planing (SRP) substantially reduced (by up to 99.9%) the Gram-negative anaerobe loads of the subgingivalmicroflora. The low values of pathogens persisted for at least 2 months after the therapy. In addition, molecular detection of the main periodontopathogenic bacteria significantly reduced in the number of dental sites which harboured them. HBOT combined with SRP was the most beneficial in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis when compared with SRP and HBOT alone. The therapeutic effect of HBOT is mostly through inhibition of the growth of subgingival anaerobes. Clinical follow-ups suggest that the effect could last more than 2 years.

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